From a publisher’s point of view:
It really depends on who you submitted to. If your publisher grinds out over 50 novels a year, probably not. They may have looked at it and decided to turn you down because of the work needed to polish the manuscript for publication. It could be because they have a glut of books in the same exact genre as what you submitted. Maybe they are over their yearly budget and cannot put out another one. The list of reasons is endless.
What you need to do is look at the rejection and understand what it says. Do they suggest rewriting the work or is it a flat out no. Some publishers will tell you that the manuscript needs a little work, and if that is the case, do your edits and rewrites before resubmitting it. Don’t throw it back the following month for every writer knows you will get an immediate rejection for something like that.
Kamila has some good points, but remember that this is your first novel and you are an unknown. Getting an agent may alienate you from the small publishers because agents are known to push and double play a manuscript against multiple publishers. Case in point, I turn away every submission sent to us by an agent, they are not worth the hassle of dealing with them.
First time authors rarely get an advance on royalties. If you get a contract and there is no advance, don’t be surprised. Watch what rights they want and if you are paid for everything. A good boiler plate contract will allow for royalties from all revenue generated by the work. They may also demand language rights, and that is if the work becomes popular. Being your first publication, it would be wise to accept a little give to build your profile as an author.
Don’t expect to become rich right away. Most authors barely make enough to survive and have day jobs until they have 5 or more novels out there that sell.
Keep in mind that you may need to go through multiple rejections before being accepted for publication.